Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe. Francisco Pacheco y su Libro de retratos. The texts which he printed, most of which had come with him from Macau, were fitted to the needs and interests of his procuration. Typis Universitatis Carolo Ferdinandae. The relics of the Martyrs of Japan, in fact, become highly sought-after and valued objects, being particularly important in churches, chapels, and private collections.
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The Christian Century in Japan, But it was not the General Congregation that brought Cardim to Rome. Typis Universitatis Carolo Ferdinandae.
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He not only tried to gain the favor of the members of the Congregation of Rites, many of whose cardinals were also members of the Congregation of the Inquisition, but also sought support from other epelho and sources of power, including secular figures beyond the Roman world such as the Spanish kingwho could play an active supportive role in negotiations with the papal authorities.
For some time, they continued their artistic activity and the artistic forms they had developed in Japan, and their work was particularly well-received in areas like Spanish America Curvelo, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal. The repression worsened and the number of death sentences increased, including mass executions in,and Not only had they opened the province of Japan to new lands, espekho they had also recruited more neophytes, he argued, than the Jesuits had had in China since the beginning of their apostolic mission.
Biblioteca de la Real Academia de la Historia Madrid.
However, beyond these financial problems, the report also discussed the demands of the Jesuits to establish an autonomous province in China, rather than to remain as a vice-province, and to establish their base at the College of Eapelho. In the second level, in the middle, we see those who were burned at the stake, those who were decapitated and those who had to live in secrecy or exile.
The texts which he printed, most of which had come with him from Macau, were fitted to the needs and interests of his procuration. Employing arguments similar to the ones used in the Informatio pro Provincia Japponicahe argued that this new geography did not mean that the province could not keep its original name, as, for example, the province of Venice had done Cardim, a: In the nearly ten years he spent in Europe, between Lisbon and Rome, he undertook several publishing projects, and was responsible for the circulation of printed pamphlets and other texts, in Latin, Italian, and Portuguese, about the mission in Japan and its martyrs.
These more narrative and dramatized styles, however, were further removed from the portraits and the iconic nature of the prints in the Fasciculus. His journey through Goa, Lisbon and Rome allowed him to add to, and perfect, the first version of the text written in Macau Cardim, marrires Cardim, Fasciculus e iapponicis floribusRome: However, these were common elements at the time, and the similarities do not per se prove the existence of links between the engravings and the painting.
The most characteristic feature about the Roman edition of the Espelno or at least of many of the copies was the inclusion of 87 engravings, each of which depicted one of the martyrs whose lives were recounted in the book. Mors felicissima quatuor legatorum Lusitanorum et sociorum quos Japponiae Imperator occidit. Japanese images, Matrires engravings As already noted, it was the Latin edition of the Elogios that gained most importance among all the texts that Cardim printed in Rome.
We will then examine his editorial activity over these years, situating it within his strategies as a procurator and emphasizing the importance he placed on printed works and images. Kirishitan Belief and Practice.
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Journey to the East. Apostolado da Imprensa, 7 vols. The matter could not be separated from marfires or institutional questions. Anonymous Japanese Master, Jesuit Martyrs c. III 2 The Jesuits in the vice-province of China made increasing demands for resources from the province of Japan, believing that they were in no short supply, and were martjres on gaining institutional recognition from Rome; both of these factors only heightened the tensions in Macau itself between the Jesuits linked to the Chinese mission and those in the province of Japan.
The scene shows the victims from two different angles, surrounded by people Fig.
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Beyond the immediate reasons behind commissioning printed works, the texts which friars and procurators brought with them did not just allow them to increase the visibility of the colonial and missionary situations which they wanted to assert in metropolitan contexts. Like the opuscule he had printed in Lisbon, this work was also printed in further editions, which show that it was quickly and widely received within European Jesuit circles. To those who questioned the very existence of the province, given that Christianity had almost completely disappeared from the Japanese Archipelago, Cardim said that there were still a few thousand secret believers who used their houses as churches, as the first Christians had done.
Along with a detailed description of the catastrophes that Christianity underwent in Japan, Cardim added news about Macau and the missions in Tonkin, Cochin China, Laos, Siam, and the island of Hainan. Latent Structures and Intellectual Currents, On the Streets of Renaissance Lisbon.